Wetlands Hydrologic Issues
Bill Capehart, SDSMT, Rapporteur
Introduction and Background
The role of the spatial and temporal variability of the prairie wetlands in the regional hydrology and climate is been noted in a number of studies (Poiani et al., 1995 & 1996, LaBaugh et al., 1996). Recently the wetlands have been at record size with flooding becoming commonplace in and around northeastern Prairie Couteau. What were previously a series of closed individuated basins now compose one large lake complex with surface drainage exiting into neighboring river basins (Rahn, 1998). Lake core sampling, modeling and lake surface elevations have shown that such high moisture states can be achieved quickly yet remain for years (Wright, 1971; Poiani et al., 1996; LaBaugh et al., 1998). However, the wetlands have also been far drier, such as during the droughts in the 30s and late 1980s. The latter period is important from an observational perspective since the period coincides with the satellite record permitting local and regional monitoring through a drying and wetting cycle.
Understanding the interactions of the wetlands complex with its neighboring uplands, and the climate system, defined here as regions typically not inundated with water over long periods, and the impact on these interactions on the climate system is therefore a key science issue for the SoDak NASA EPSCoR program. Many of the issues revolving around the wetlands also coincide with four of the five basic science objectives in the NASA strategic plan (NASA, 1998):
x Understand the causes and consequences of land-cover/land-use change
x Predict seasonal-to-interannual climate variations
x Identify natural hazards, processes, and mitigation strategies
x Detect long-term climate change, causes, and impacts
¨ Understand the causes of variation in atmospheric ozone concentration and distribution
Therefore, there are a vast number of potential activities in which we can interact with NASA investigators.
Contributed and Discussed Items
A number of items have been submitted for consideration for Hydrologic Problems for NASA EPSCoR, also submitted are current and potential sources if data infrastructure. Summarized below, these items encompass a number of applications that can be summarized as diagnostics (describing the current state of wetland status), prognostic (forecasting potential status of wetland/dryland interaction) and management. Items are accompanied by contributors (listed in alphabetical order).
Asanuma, J., and W. Brutsaert, 1999: The effect of chessboard variability of the surface fluxes on the aggregated turbulence fields in a convective atmospheric surface layer, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 91, 37-50.
Basist, A.N., N.C. Grody, T.C. Peterson, and C.N. Williams, 1998: Using special sensor microwave imager to monitor land surface temperature, wetness and snow cover, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 37, 881-911.
Best, R.G., 1978: Utilization of color-infrared areal photography to characterize prairie potholes. Pecora IV Symp. Proc., 180-187.
Best, R.G., and D.G. Moore, 1979: Landsat interpretations of prairie lakes and wetlands of Eastern South Dakota, Satellite Hydrology, American Water Resources Association, Minneanapolis, 499-506.
Bicknell, B.R., J.C. Imhoff, J.L. Kittle, A.S. Donigian, and R.C. Johanson, 1997. Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran, Users Manual, Release 11. EPA/600/R97/080. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, Athens, GA.
Bonan, G.B., 1995: Sensitivity of a GCM simulation to inclusion of inland water surfaces, J. Climate, 8, 2691-2704.
Burba, G.G., S.B. Verma, and J. Kim, 1999: A comparitive study of surface energy fluxes of three communities (Phragmites Australis, Scirpus Acutus, and open water) in a prairie wetland system, Wetlands, 19, 451-457.
Capehart, W.J., and R.R. Gillies, 1996: The remote sensing of soil moisture and surface fluxes at various scales using remotely observed surface temperature and a vegetative index, American Geophysical Union 1996 Spring Meeting, Baltimore, MD, 20-24 May 1996.
Capehart, W.J., M.R. Hjelmfelt, R.G. Derickson, S.J. Kenner, and A.D. Davis, 1998: A coupled atmospheric-hydrologic modeling system for use in the northern Great Plains, AMS 78th Annual Meeting, Special Symposium on Hydrology, Phoenix, AZ, 11-16 January 1998.
Carlson, T.N., J.K. Dodd, S.G. Benjamin, and J.N. Cooper, 1981: Satellite estimation of the surface energy balance, moisture availability and thermal inertia, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 20, 67-87.
Cowardin, L.M., 1982: Some conceptual and semantic problems in wetland classification and inventory, Wildlife Society Bulletin, 10, 57-60.
Ernst-Dottavio, C.L., R.M. Hoffer, and R.P. Mroczynski, 1981: Spectral characteristics of wetland habitats, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 42, 223-227.
FEMA, 1999: Draft summary report of hydrologic and hydrologic and hydraulic studies, Waubay Lakes chain, South Dakota, URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services, Gaithersburg Maryland, 05 August 1999.
Galatowitsch, S.M., and A.G. van der Valk, 1996: Characteristics of restored wetlands in the prairie pothole region, Wetlands, 16, 75-83.
Gerla, P.J., 1999: Estimating the ground-water contributions in wetlands using modeling and digital terrain analysis, Wetlands, 19, 394-402.
Giorgi, F., 1997: An approach for the representation of surface heterogeneity in land surface models. Part II: Validation and sensitivity experiments, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 125, 1900-1919.
Goodin, D.G., J.S. Peake, and J.A. Barmann, 1996: Analyses and modeling of the radiation budget and net radiation of a Sandhills wetland, Wetlands, 16, 66-74.
Hann, C.T., and H.P. Johnson, 1967: Geometrical properties of depressions in north-central Iowa, Iowa State Journal of Science., 42, 149-160.
Hardin, D.L., 1985: Remote sensing of wetlands for fish and wildlife habitat management in Deleware a comparison of data sources, Integration of Remotely Sensed Data in GIS for Processing of Global Resource Information., CERMA Proceedings, Washington, D.C.
Hardy, R.J., P.D. Bates, and M.G. Anderson, 1999: The importance of spatial resolution in hydraulic models for floodplain environments, Journal of Hydrology, 216, 124-136.
Hodgson, M.E., and J.R., Jensen, H.E. Mackey, and M.C. Coulter, 1988: Monitoring wood stork foraging habitat using remote sensing and GIS, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54, 1601-1607.
Hubbard, D.E., 1982: Surface area -- volume relationship of wetland basins in the interior of the Coteau des Prairies. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Sciences, 61, 154-158.
Hubbard, D.E., J.L. Richardson, and D.D. Malo, 1988: Glaciated prairie wetlands: soils, hydrology, and land-use implications, Proceedings of the National Wetland Symposium: Wetland Hydrology, 16-18 September 1987, Chicago, IL, Eds, J. A. Kusler and G. Brooks, Association of State Wetland Managers Technical Report 6. Bern, NY.
Hunt, R.J., J.F. Walker, and D.P. Krabbenhoft, 1999: Characterizing hydrology and the importance of ground-water discharge in natural and constructed wetlands, Wetlands, 19, 458-472.
Jacobson, J.E., R.A. Ritter, and GT Koeln, 1987: Accuracy of Thematic Mapper derived wetlands derived wetlands as based on national wetland inventory data. ASPRS/ASCM/WFPLS Fall Convention, American Society of Photogrammetery and Remote Sensing, Falls Church, VA.
Johnson, R.R., and K.F. Higgins, 1995: Using soils to delineate South Dakota physiographic regions, Great Plains Research, 5, 309-322.
Johnson, R.R., and K.F. Higgins, 1997: Wetlands resources of South Dakota. A Technical Report of the South Dakota State University and the South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. The South Dakota State University: Brookings, SD, 102 pp.
Julien, P.Y., B. Saghafian, and F.L. Ogden, 1995: Raster-based hydrologic modeling of spatially-varied surface runoff, Water Resources Bulletin, 31, 523-536.
Karl, T.R., C.N. Williams, Jr., F.T. Quinlan, and T.A. Boden, 1990: United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data, Environmental Science Division, Publication No. 3404, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 389 pp.
LaBaugh, J.W., T.C. Winter, and D.O. Rosenberry, 1998: Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands, Great Plains Research, 8, 17-37.
LaBaugh, J.W., T.C. Winter, G.A. Swanson, D.O., Rosenberry, R.N. Nelson, and N.H. Euliss, 1996: Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns affect midcontinent wetlands sensitive to climate, Limnology and Oceanography, 41, 864-870.
Lu, L.., R.A. Pielke Sr, G.E. Liston, B. Parton, D. Ojima, and M. Hartman, 1998: The Implementation of a two-way Interactive Atmospheric and Ecological Modeling System and its Application to the Great Plains, GCIP Mississippi River Climate Conference, St. Louis, MO, 8-12 June 1998.
NASA, 1998: Earth Science Strategic Enterprise Plan 1998 2002, NASA, Washington, DC, October 1998.
Neilson, R.P., 1985: A model for predicting continental-scale vegetation distribution and water balance, Ecological Applications, 5, 362-385.
Parkhurst, R.S., T.C. Winter, D.O. Rosenberry, and A.M. Sturrock, 1998: Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the cottonwood lake area an energy-budget study, Wetlands, 18, 272-287.
Pickus, J., 1990: Pearl River wetlands advanced identification: a geographical information systems demonstration project, EPA-EMSL, Las Vegas, NV, Report 215-90C05.
Poiani, K.A., and W.C. Johnson, 1993: A spatial simulation model of hydrology and vegetation dynamics in semi-permanent prairie wetlands, Ecological Applications, 3, 279-293.
Poiani, K.A., W.C. Johnson, and T.G.F. Kittel, 1995: Sensitivity of a prairie wetland to increases temperature and seasonal precipitation changes, Water Resour. Bull., 31, 283-294.
Poiani, K.A., W.C. Johnson, G.A. Swanson, and T.C. Winter, 1996: Climate change and northern prairie wetlands: Simulations of long-term dynamics, Limnology and Oceanography, 41, 871-881.
Rahn, P.H., 1998: Hydrology of glacial lakes, Fort Sisseton Area, South Dakota Academy of Science Annual Meeting, Spearfish, SD, 17-18 April 1998.
Scofield, R.A., and C. Margottini, 1999: Earth observation satellites for flood management and flash flood analysis and prediction, Space Forum, 4, 199-222.
Seth, A., F. Giorgi, and R.E. Dickinson, 1994: Simulating fluxes from heterogeneous land surfaces: Explicit subgrid method employing the biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS), Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 99, 18651-18667.
Shjeflo, J. B., 1968: Evapotranspiration and the water budget of prairie potholes in North Dakota. Geological Survey Professional Paper 585-B, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash.
Walton, R., R.S. Chapman, and J.E. Davis, 1996: Development and application of the wetlands dynamic water budget model, Wetlands, 16, 347-357.
Winter T.C., R.D. Benson, R.A. Engberg, G.J. Wiche, D.G. Emerson, O.A. Crosby, and J.E. Miller, 1984: Synopsis of ground-water and surface-water resources of North Dakota. U.S. Geologic Survey Open File Report 84-732.
Winter, T.C., and D.O. Rosenberry, 1995: The interactions of groundwater with prairie pothole wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, East Central North Dakota, 1979-1990, Wetlands, 15, 193-211.
Woo, M-K, and R.D. Roswell, 1993: Hydrology of a prairie slough, Journal of Hydrology., 146, 175-207.
Wood, B.L., 1983: Wetlands mapping in Colusa Country, California, NASA/AMES International Renewable Resource Inventions for Monitoring Conference, Corvallis, OR.
Wright, H.E., Jr., 1971: Late quaternary vegetation history of North America, Lake Cenozioc Glacial Ages, Ed., K.K. Turekian, Yale University Press, 425-464.
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