In the coming year, the South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) will progressively continue to leverage our growing resources through linkage of research, educational outreach, and public service efforts.  Our goals and planned projects for the coming year are described below. 

Many of SDSGC's members and affiliates work well together in promoting and conducting research and education at the university and K-12 levels.  We plan to expand activities with the five new affiliates that joined the Consortium during the past year, as well as with the other members and affiliates that continue to engage in good collaboration.  It is hoped that by the end of FY2002, all SDSGC members and affiliates will actively participate and contribute to Consortium activities.  For example, it is our intent to host an upcoming quarterly meeting of the SDSGC, inviting all Consortium members.  At this meeting, we plan to use the excitement of the proposed National Underground Science Laboratory at Homestake, described below, to entice Consortium members to define and fill various roles associated with outreach at the proposed lab. 

As presented at the poster session of the National Council of Space Grant Directors Meeting in Fairbanks, SDSGC was involved this past year with efforts within and outside the state of SD regarding the proposed National Underground Science Laboratory at the Homestake Mine.  A 5-year, collaborative proposal has been submitted to the National Science Foundation to convert the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota, which is scheduled to close in December 2001, into a National Underground Science Laboratory (NUSL) <http://mocha.phys.washington.edu/NUSL/>.  During the past 30 years, scientists have developed an amazing way to view the Universe with deep underground neutrino "telescopes".  Results from the first solar neutrino experiment, which was initiated by Dr. R. Davis and his colleagues over 30 years ago with a neutrino detector 4,850 feet underground at the Homestake Mine, have stimulated the "solar neutrino problem" and multiple investigations worldwide.  The results obtained from this growing cadre of underground detectors now promise new insights into the Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Forces.  In addition to subterranean physics, a whole range of "underground science" has become evident during the past few years.  Specific subterranean research topics include solar, atmospheric, long-baseline, supernova and high energy astrophysical neutrinos, double beta decay, and dark matter searches; precision and sensitive assay of radionuclides (with applications to enforcement of disarmament treaties and environmental effluent studies); materials science and engineering; nuclear astrophysics cross-section measurements; hydrology, seismology, rock mechanics and other topics in geoscience; microgravity experiments via long drop tubes; and the study of the evolution and subsistence of biological organisms under extreme environmental conditions.  There is also considerable industrial interest in underground laboratories because of materials activation issues, cosmic-ray-induced error rates in microelectronics, quantum computing, and the production and storage of ultra-pure materials. 

The imminent cessation of mining by Homestake/Barrick, the mine's maximum 8,250 foot depth, its multiple underground levels every ~150 feet from the surface to 8,250', its geologic stability in a seismic-quiet area, and an extensive physical plant, combine to make a compelling argument for the location of the NUSL at the Homestake Mine site.  The proposal to NSF is a collaboration between the Consortium for Underground Science and the State of SD and its universities, with strong support from the Governor and Legislature.  The State of SD is in final stages of legislatively-approved negotiations with Homestake Mining Company/Barrick to obtain title to specific portions of the Homestake site.  With assistance from the SD congressional delegation, federal indemnification is being sought for both Homestake/Barrick and the State.  The proposal lays out a conceptual design and corresponding budget for renovating the existing infrastructure into a laboratory, developing capabilities to host multiple underground science experiments at several depths, and developing a corresponding surface facility to support the overall scientific endeavors at the NUSL.  Laboratory caverns would be built-to-order as scientific proposals are approved. 

With proximity to Mt. Rushmore and the fact that most people find understanding the Cosmos so exciting, NUSL has the potential to directly engage more Americans than any other U.S. research science site.  In addition to an extensive outreach program for tourists, NUSL will provide on-site and distance education curricular experiences for K-Ph.D. students, distance education opportunities for the general public, astrophysical data outreach to scientists around the world, and special participation opportunities for individuals and institutions in regional and national EPSCoR states and Puerto Rico.  In its interpretative activities, NUSL will recognize the special significance of the Black Hills to the Native American community and will use both its special place and the excitement of its science to reach out to all communities, especially those underrepresented in U.S. science and technology.  In the upcoming year, SDSGC plans on using the existing outreach network contained within the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NASA EPSCoR Program for this purpose. 

In keeping with SDSGC's leadership role in the State/Regional/Local/Tribal Government Involvement (SRLT) Committee’s efforts focusing on ways to involve more State/Regional/Local/Tribal Government in Space Grant Consortia activities and to improve the effectiveness of such partnerships, SDSGC will continue to make in-roads with such entities in SD to enhance the mutual exchange of science, technology, and education.  SDSGC will strive to find new ways of bringing in additional outside funding and matching dollars for Consortium and NASA EPSCoR activities, to include writing outside grants for Space Grant projects.  Such outside funding and the new projects associated with that funding will be used as a measure of our success in building educational, research, and public service projects in SD. 

The SDSGC will continue to focus its educational and research activities on earth system science. This is especially relevant in South Dakota because of the close linkage that many of the state’s inhabitants still have with their natural environment.  We believe that South Dakota’s inherent environmental and ecological heterogeneity provides an excellent opportunity to develop projects that can be directly linked to the programmatic interests of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise.  An example of this is South Dakota’s NASA EPSCoR funded proposal “The Use of Remote Sensing for Monitoring, Prediction, and Management of Hydrologic, Agricultural, and Ecological Processes in the Northern Great Plains”.  The SD NASA EPSCoR “Team” of researchers agreed to pursue a research strategy centered on: 1) the establishment of quantitative links between geospatial information technologies and fundamental climatic and ecosystem processes in the Northern Great Plains (NGP), and 2) the development and use of coupled modeling tools, which can be initialized by data from a combined satellite and surface observational network, to provide reliable predictions and management guidance for hydrologic, agricultural, and ecological systems of the NGP.  The focus of the remote sensing research at our three member universities will continue to be on applications to agriculture and natural resources, which comprise the largest economic activities in our state. 

We will continue to place special emphasis on our on-going outreach to Native Americans through our ties with the Tribal Colleges and several of the Native American K-12 schools in South Dakota. 

We look forward to searching out NASA-supported science and engineering programs that haven't yet been implemented in South Dakota, and collaboratively promoting those programs to students, teachers, and the general public in our State.  An example of this is the FIRST Robotics Program, which is currently on line to accommodate nine high school teams from within the state of SD.  There are numerous other NASA-sponsored learning opportunities that would result in bringing more bright young people into the science and engineering world of NASA if more people in our state were aware of them. We look forward to facilitating this awareness by helping to get the word out on these opportunities and providing technical and administrative assistance. 

Note: For more detailed information on SDSU's work plan for FY2002, the reader is directed to the Nov. 10, 2001 memo from SDSU's Kevin Dalsted included in this report and budget request package submitted to NASA on Nov. 30, 2001.  Likewise, Augustana College's "Augustana/NASA Space Grant Budget Notes" for FY2002 are also included in this package.  

1)      Research Infrastructure  

As a "capability enhancement" state in NASA’s Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, development of research infrastructure within South Dakota is a primary focus of Consortium activities.  We feel that the environment in South Dakota for continued research infrastructure development is favorable.  Specifically related to NASA research, this is evidenced by South Dakota’s successful initiation into the NASA EPSCoR Program this past year <nasaepscor/>.  In addition to SD’s core grant for strengthening research infrastructure in the state, we will work in collaboration with our partners on the following two projects funded under NASA EPSCoR:  

·         "Cross-Calibration of Landsat and IKONOS Sensors for Use in Precision Agriculture”.  This project will 1) develop and evaluate rules for identifying the “best” sensor for given agronomic applications, 2) conduct cross-calibration of Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, and IKONOS sensors, using standard reflectance measurements, within wheat, grass and soybean fields, and 3) conduct outreach to share results with interested parties, namely agricultural producers, crop consultants, industry and service agencies. 

·        "Leaf Area Index for Fire Chronosequences of the Black Hills and Southern Siberia: A Comparative Study".  This project will collect fundamental Leaf Area Index (LAI) ground validation data sets and establish the relationship between spectral data and LAI along fire and thinning chronosequences in two conifer-dominated ecosystems: the boreal forest of southern Siberia, and the Black Hills ponderosa pine forest of western SD.  The project will build upon existing LAI measurements in Russia and provide comparison measurements in the Black Hills region to determine the broad scale applicability of satellite-based LAI derivations for conifer forests. 

The SD NASA EPSCoR Program acknowledges the importance of building and maintaining effective linkages with NASA collaborators to help assure that input and output is provided at both the state and federal level and that the development of NASA EPSCoR research infrastructure within SD is in areas of strategic importance to NASA's mission.  We plan to continue our collaboration with NASA personnel in follow-up to the 23 trips made by SD researchers to form collaborative linkages during the two-year SD NASA EPSCoR Preparation Grant period. The close ties several scientists from our SDSGC universities have to the USGS Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, which is a key Consortium member located in Sioux Falls, SD, enhance these research efforts.  Our Summer Faculty Fellowship program greatly augments this connection to the EROS Data Center. 

In addition to using SDSGC Program Initiation Grant (PIG) funds described below in the “Higher Education” section of the Program Plan, we will also use about $30,000 from SD’s NASA EPSCoR core grant to seed meritorious PIG projects.  The research landscape within South Dakota universities and colleges is now extremely fertile due to a renaissance that started here about six years ago.   Consequently, properly placed research seeds to initiate new and creative projects can be expected to grow in this environment and thereby provide additional impetus for the research renaissance in South Dakota. 

We will remain involved with the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) Public Access Resource Center (PARC) project, which is related to Space Grant by virtue of subject area, and disseminate the practical products of this research to a broad audience via this partnership. 

The “Opportunities for State, Local, Regional and Tribal Governments to Utilize NASA and Commercially Developed Data and Capabilities” BAA and the NASA geospatial specialist connection with Land Grant Universities will continue to be investigated by SDSU.  If SDSU does or doesn’t get the geospatial specialist activity going in FY 2002/2003, Kevin Dalsted will spend time working on this issue in collaboration with the USDA Cooperative Extension Service and the College of Agriculture at SDSU. 

SDSGC will continue to provide administrative assistance for meetings of the Western Research Alliance <http://w-research-alliance.org/>.  The objective of this broad based organization is to provide a regional forum for academic researchers, entrepreneurs, state and federal agencies, and local economic developers who are interested in the promotion of research, technology transfer, and business development. 

Technical and financial support will be provided for GIS-remote sensing and image processing laboratories at member universities and educational affiliates, including Native American Tribal Colleges.  This support is for research and educational projects involving GIS and remote sensing curriculum development, precision agriculture, algorithm development for NDVI data, plant science, climate change, and land surface processes. 

SDSM&T will continue research into carbon sequestration potential in South Dakota. 

SDSGC will continue providing limited funding to stimulate the publication of scientific papers and for presentations at research conferences. 

Two Science Data Buy proposals to the Stennis Space Center have been granted to SDSU in the past.  SDSU anticipates looking to additional data buys for eastern South Dakota in conjunction with the NASA EPSCoR project.  SDSU has continued their connection to JPL in the event that an SAR data buy opportunity might arise for potential use with the precision agriculture activities. 

2)      Higher Education 

SDSGC member universities will continue providing graduate, undergraduate, and faculty development fellowships as in previous years.  Total awards in these areas over the FY02 project year will be approximately $65,034.  When relevant, we will encourage both students and faculty to present/publish the results of their research that is supported by Space Grant fellowships.  The number of publications/presentations will be used as a measure of success. 

We plan to continue supporting and funding the SDSGC Program Initiation Grant (PIG) program in 2002. We will also continue our current programs to involve faculty and students from SDSGC’s Tribal College affiliates in new and ongoing research and education projects with other Consortium institutions.  PIG projects are envisioned to be awarded for a total of $8,500 plus whatever additional matching can be provided.  We look at PIG projects as a mechanism to build additional research collaboration among Consortium affiliates.  Future research and technology development projects that arise from PIG project seed funding can be used as a measure of success of the SDSGC PIG program. 

If SDSM&T's proposal under NASA's KC-135 Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunity competition is funded for the Spring or Summer 2002 flight program, the SDSM&T team will conduct an experiment titled “Photon Propulsion for Gossamer Spacecraft”.  This experiment compares two different “solar sail” systems using short wavelength-near visible laser light and long wavelength microwaves as the means of propulsion <http://www.hpcnet.org/space>.  An extensive outreach program is planned.  Regardless of whether the project is selected for flight, the experiment will be conducted as a senior design project for the Mechanical Engineering student team members. 

Graduate and undergraduate students will continue to participate in research efforts at GIS-Remote Sensing and Image Processing Laboratories supported by our Consortium. 

SDSGC will continue maintaining and updating its "Educational Opportunities (Higher Ed.)" website  <EdOpp-HigherEd.htm>. 

Several students at SDSM&T have expressed interest in applying to the 2002 NASA Academy.  If selected, SDSGC intends to support at least one student to the Academy. 

SDSGC will continue it's recent successful affiliation with Badlands Observatory, a privately owned facility dedicated to Astronomical Research & Education in Quinn, SD <bo.htm>.  It is host to an f/4.8 Newtonian Telescope with a 26" diameter mirror, the largest telescope in the local three-state area.  Badlands Observatory participates in the international Spaceguard Foundation, in which participating observatories around the world are cataloguing all of the Near Earth Objects (asteroids) that may represent a global impact hazard to the Earth. The dark skies in western SD, combined with the extremely sensitive research-grade telescope at Badlands Observatory, places the observatory in the company of some of the world's best astronomical research facilities.  SDSM&T and USD will continue forging astronomical education and research partnerships with Badlands Observatory.  SDSM&T and Badlands Observatory will offer a Spring 2002 college course at SDSM&T titled “Advanced Observational Astronomy” (Physics 385). 

3)      K-12 Outreach 

The important activities to enhance interest in science and engineering topics and careers among elementary and secondary students in South Dakota will continue with the assistance of SDSGC's full time Deputy Director and Outreach Coordinator at SDSM&T, as well as with those involved in outreach activities at Augustana College and SDSU. 

The eighth annual “South Dakota/NASA Space Day 2002” will be hosted by SDSU in Brookings on April 5, 2001. In addition to the regular variety of Space Day exhibits and activities, former Astronaut Dr. Edward G. Gibson will be the featured speaker. Space Day 2002 will be held in conjunction with the regional science fair at SDSU to capture synergy from the two events, which both emphasize science and fun.  Attendance, diversity in exhibits, and public feedback will be used a measure of success.  <http://www.engineering.sdstate.edu/~erc/SGC/spaceday.htm> 

SDSGC will again participate in the 2002 "Student Signatures in Space" Program and will maintain good working relationships with the two NASA Educator Resource Centers (ERC's) in South Dakota to help assure their continuing use by teachers and students. 

SDSM&T will continue to maintain and update SDSGC's useful "Educational Opportunities (K-12)" website <http://www.sdsmt.edu/space/EdOpp-K-12.htm> for SD teachers, students, and parents. 

Teacher workshops in GIS, GPS, and Remote Sensing technology will be held across the State of South Dakota during the summer of 2002 under the UMAC EdPARC project. 

SDSGC will help sponsor SDSM&T’s Space and Earth Camps for high school teachers to be held in the summer of 2002.  Topics in the Space Camp include planets and planetary geology; lives of stars; classification, morphology and origin of galaxies; meteorites; comets; the electromagnetic spectrum; origin and evolution of the solar system and the universe; etc.  Observing sessions will focus on constellation recognition as well as developing astronomical object location, identification, and description skills. An 18" JMI Newtonian reflector, SBIG CCD camera, and a 4" refractor (along with any scopes participants would like to bring) will be available. The workshop is tailored for teachers, students, and amateur astronomers. 

With support from SDSGC, the "Earth Systems Connections" project <http://www.tandl.vt.edu/esc/> will continue; a collaborative, hands on, elementary curriculum project funded by NASA where students are challenged to explore how many of the Earth's systems operate and connect with one another.  SDSM&T's Dr. Lee Vierling, the PI of the project, will continue to work with the two pilot schools in SD: Little Wound School in Kyle and Woodrow Wilson Elementary School in Rapid City. 

SDSGC will continue its support for the "Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership" (SKILL) Program on SDSM&T's campus as well as student participation in the local chapter of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES). 

Educational outreach and mentoring of high school students at "Badlands Observatory" will provide solid astronomy-related learning experiences for local students. 

Augustana College's annual Science Day will provide high school juniors and seniors a day filled with hands-on science opportunities/experiences.  Special invitations will be sent to Native American and female students in order to break down the stereotypes that science has sometimes produced.   

SDSU will offer the annual Aerospace Career and Education (ACE) Camp in July 2002, with an eye toward locating additional funds and increasing attendance.   

Nine high schools throughout the state will participate in the 2002 FIRST Robotics program, funded by NASA and supported by SDSGC.  Mentoring universities for the high school teams include the following Consortium members: SDSM&T, SDSU, and Augustana College. 

SDSU’s Dr. MaryJo Lee will continue her efforts to recruit minorities and underserved populations into fields of science, technology, engineering, and math.  She successfully coordinated the SDSU/Success Academy program last spring, which is expected to continue in 2002.  This year, the program will bring high school freshmen and sophomores from Flandreau Indian School to SDSU’s campus for technical workshops with university professors, a meal, and fun activity.  Dr. Lee will continue to look for related external funding to support her efforts. 

Middle and high school science teacher-training workshops in GIS, GPS, and Remote Sensing technology will again be offered in the summer of 2002.  While these activities are primarily sponsored by the UMAC EdPARC program, SDSGC has also shared resources in terms of providing funding and instructors from Consortium personnel. 

4)      Other Public Service 

SDSGC will support programs at the Children's Science Center in Rapid City and to school/youth groups by providing staff to conduct 1) astronomy or Starlab Planetarium shows, 2) presentations on remote sensing and the International Space Station, to show children how space-based technologies are an integral part of our everyday lives and how an education in science, math, and engineering can help in their future careers, and 3) presentations on SDSM&T's KC-135 reduced gravity student flight opportunities. 

We will maintain support to the Black Hills Astronomical Society (BHAS) and related Star Parties that are open to the public at Hidden Valley Observatory during the summer <BHAS.htm>. 

SDSGC will continue supporting StarDate's PBS radio broadcast in South Dakota as part of the McDonald Observatory astronomy program. 

Press releases and various informational presentations about Consortium activities, noteworthy celestial events, aerospace programs, etc. will continue to be published and released to the public by SDSGC. 

Bob Polcyn is anticipated to be accepted as South Dakota’s Solar System Ambassador by the Solar System Ambassador Program at the first of the year.  He will make several presentations to the public and school children on space and the solar system in 2002. 

Due to the success of this year’s program, SDSGC will again provide a course entitled “Introduction to Astronomy and Current Events in Space” in the Fall of 2002 through the Community Education Program in Rapid City. 

Maintaining SDSGC's extensive website <> provides an excellent service available to the public. 

5)      Fellowships and Scholarships 

The Consortium will continue to support research and educational endeavors of faculty and graduate/undergraduate students at its member institutions.  At least two Summer Faculty or Graduate Fellowships to the USGS EROS Data Center will be supported.  Likewise, we will continue to provide fellowships to faculty or students at Tribal College affiliates in South Dakota.  A number of graduate and undergraduate fellowships and scholarships will be provided. The total awards in these areas will be approximately $65,034. 

6)      Administration 

The Consortium will be represented in 2002 at all the National Council of Space Grant Directors' meetings, the Space Grant Western Regional Meeting, and the National Space Grant Conference. 

Dr. Sherry Farwell, Dean of Graduate Education and Sponsored Programs at SDSM&T, will continue as the Consortium Director. To coordinate and manage our various efforts in more effective ways, Mr. Tom Durkin will continue to serve as SDSGC's full-time Deputy Director and Outreach Coordinator at SDSM&T.  Dr. Kevin Dalsted will continue as the Associate Director at SDSU. Dr. Daniel Swets remains the Associate Director at Augustana College, but has assigned temporary replacements for certain duties as he will be away for six months at the University of Mauritius on a Fulbright lecturing/research grant.  Randy McKinley will serve as the USGS EROS Data Center Coordinator for Space Grant Consortium activities. 

With the help of teleconferencing and the Digital Dakota Network (DDN) interactive TV technology with nodes located throughout the state, we plan to continue meeting at least quarterly to more effectively coordinate and evaluate program progress. 

The leadership of the SDSGC will build on our success to date and explore new ways to stimulate further participation by the Tribal College affiliates in Consortium activities.  We will continue focusing on competitive allotment of SDSGC funds and the goal of nurturing projects that can attract external support. 

Consortium management personnel will be intimately involved with the SD NASA EPSCoR Program’s Technical Advisory Committee, Steering Committee, and other activities.  Likewise, we will endeavor to improve research collaboration with the USGS EROS Data Center and industry affiliates.  We will also make a special effort to promote effective outreach associated with the proposed National Underground Science Laboratory at Homestake.

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